“Forests hide wonders…”

The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They Communicate

Discoveries from a Secret World

By Peter Wohlleben

Greystone Books, 2015

245 pages; notes, index.

This book transforms the common concept of trees as “things” into recognition of trees as beings.

Recent science has demonstrated that trees…

  • link together via underground networks;
  • feed needy members of their communities;
  • warn others of dangers (insect predators, browsing animals, lack of water);
  • protect and nurture youngsters;
  • have cooperative arrangements with other species (fungi, ants);
  • migrate to new areas that offer opportunities to flourish and increase.

Human understanding has been handicapped by the profound difference between our life span and the slow-lane experience of trees. We may hope to see 80 years, while many trees naturally live for centuries. Individual trees, such as the Great Basin bristlecone pines (California and Nevada), have lived more than 5,000 years. (The oldest known clonal tree (genetic duplicate) is named “Pando,” and constitutes a colony of quaking aspen, in Utah, that is 80,000 years old.)

Scientists are just getting around to quantifying some of the amazing qualities, functions, and feats of trees, but, of critical importance to life on Earth, are the complexities of forests, which made the world habitable for humans and other species.

For 20 years, Wohlleben explains his job focused narrowly on assessing spruce, beeches, oaks and pines for suitability for the lumber mill and market value.  Eventually, his love of nature moved him to become more observant. Then Aacchen University began to conduct research in the forest he managed, and he began to manage it differently.

“When you know that trees experience pain and have memories and that tree parents live together with their children, then you no longer just chop them down and disrupt their lives with large machines.”

Wohlleben’s gentler, more natural methods resulted in a healthier, more productive, and more profitable woodland. His current employer, the community of Hummel, in the Eifel mountains of Germany, hired him to do just that. Today, he manages their forest, including stands in preserves that are left completely undisturbed. This gives me hope that greedy, short-sighted and thoughtless humans may yet get it.

This small book, written in clearly, matter of fact prose, bursts with wonders. There’s plenty of trivia you can use to impress your friends, but also, an underlying joy in the telling.

In his introduction to the English version of his book, professional forester, Peter Wohlleben uses the 20th century extirpation of Yellowstone National Park to emphasize

“how vital undisturbed forests and woodlands are to the future of our planet and how our appreciation for trees affects the way we interact with the world around us.”

You’ll never see a tree in the same way after you’ve learned the wonders of their secret world.


Trees Do Communicate and Why It Matters for Forest Conservation, Suzanne Simard; http://specialfeature.natureconservancy.ca/content/what-the-knowledge-of-how-trees-communicate-means-for-forest-conservation

List of the Oldest Trees; Wikipedia; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oldest_trees

Lincoln’s American Dream

A Just and Generous Nation – Abraham Lincoln and the Fight for America Opportunity

Harold Holzer and Norton Garfinkle
Basic Books, NY; 2015
260 pages; Appendix, Notes, Index.

For most Americans, Abraham Lincoln is the iconic, martyred president who prosecuted the Civil War to save the union and ended slavery. Among the reading public, especially those familiar with Doris Kearns Goodwin’s masterful Team of Rivals, Lincoln was a genius political leader. For those who know the letter to Horace Greeley in which he states, “If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it.” Lincoln’s once unquestioned moral leadership is recognized as political expediency.

Historian Harold Holzer (winner of the 2015 Lincoln Prize) and economist Norton Garfinkle (Chair, Future of American Democracy Foundation) teamed up to produce a perfectly timed and important new book about Lincoln, the American Dream, and the responsibility of a government of, by, and for the people.

In the first half of A Just and Generous Nation, another deeply-held principle for Lincoln is brought into focus, that “a penniless beggar” (as he described himself) could “toil up from poverty” and enjoy a comfortable, middle-class life.

Holzer reacquaints us with Honest Abe’s rise from rural poverty and a difficult family life, which informed his views as president. As a life-long student of the Founding Founders, Lincoln understood the purpose of government as a positive force providing support to the needy and provide opportunities to advance in life for working people. Intimately knowing those struggles himself, Lincoln’s government for the people, did big things that individuals are unable to do by themselves.

In that 19th-century era of rapid westward expansion, Lincoln recognized slavery as a major economic obstacle. If slavery spread into new territories, free men would be excluded from opportunities by the capitalists who owned the labor of their unpaid slaves. Virtually all new wealth created would go to the already-wealthy slaveholders. Lincoln saw that inequity as fundamentally un-American.

For the people, Lincoln passed the Homestead Act, which made affordable farmland available to all, and the Morrill Act, which provided public lands for universities offering higher education in agriculture, mechanics, and military tactics for those not born into wealth. These positive government actions helped level the playing field for immigrants and others. Some of those were my ancestors and, likely, some of your folks, too.

The second half of A Just and Generous Nation is economist Garfinkle’s territory. He steps us through the administrations that came after Lincoln,  and to the present day. We see the results of old-style Gospel of Wealth policies known better today as Reagonomics, supply side, or “trickle down” (hand-outs to the rich), and the effects of Lincoln-esque programs (hand-ups to the poor and struggling) laid out clearly.

The US economy has crashed repeatedly, – not by itself (and never because of social welfare spending). Every crash was caused by bankrupt policies and practices of the wealthy and powerful. For every crash, the poor and working families paid the price. In living memory still, there’s the Great Depression and fresh in mind, we have the 2007 housing market collapse and the taxpayer bail-outs. Americans whose home values and retirement funds evaporated, gave billions in hand-outs to those who stole their future security out from under them.  – Government protecting the rich and “corporate people” gutted the middle-class.

While the media assures us the 2008 recession is over and the economy is recovering, it rarely reports that virtually all the income gains went to the top 10% of the wealthiest Americans. Further, according to 2014 data, that richest 10% owns nearly 85% of all the nation’s financial assets.

In 90% of American households, adults work two, even three, low-wage jobs. If they can save anything for investment, they compete for the thin 15% of the wealth pie left after the rich waddled away from the banquet table. To illustrate the tightrope walk level of stress hardworking Americans face, a Princeton Survey Research Associates survey in December 2015 showed 63% of American households (52% with college degrees) would be financially devastated by an emergency that cost just $500. Life in the United States for 90% of us is closer to the “Hunger Games” than to Abraham Lincoln’s thriving middle-class ideal, but we can fix this.

Holzer and Garfinkle wrote this book with the intention of putting the lessons of history clearly before us in time for the 2016 election year. They illuminate economics, making key points easy to grasp, and apply to our own assessments of candidate policy platforms as we prepare to mark our ballots in November.

    A Just and Generous Nation reminds us Lincoln’s great unfinished work remains undone, and that with income inequality at its historic worst, saving and re-growing a middle-class society will be hard. In November, we Americans can choose to keep faith with Lincoln’s vision and do the hard thing.
    If we fall for the flim-flam again, Lincoln’s “government of the people, by the people, for the people,” – will be history.

Notes | Sources | Resources

Abraham Lincoln Online: Speeches and Writings; http://www.abrahamlincolnonline.org/

Who Rules America: Wealth, Income, and Power; www2.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/power/wealth.html

The Rich and Poor: Demographics of Wealth Distribution, John C. Weicher, 1997; https://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/review/97/07/9707jw.pdf

Inequality.org – A project of the Institute for Policy Studies; http://inequality.org/

Lincoln & Morrill: Passing the 1862 Morrill Act; Virginia Tech; http://www.vt.edu/landgrant/essays/lincoln-morrill.html

Money Pulse survey; http://www.bankrate.com/finance/consumer-index/money-pulse-1215.aspx

A Founding Genius and His Nemesis

War of Two: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and the Duel that Stunned the Nation

John Sedgwick – Oct 2015
Berkley Books – New York
408 pages; photos, notes, bibliography, index

For marketing purposes, the timing for this new book was genius times three: concurrent with genius Lin-Manuel Miranda’s award winning, Broadway musical, Hamilton – which is about the genius who created financial infrastructure for our young republic, Alexander Hamilton.

John Sedgwick wrote for general readers, not for scholars, making this an accessible and (in parts) a thrilling narrative. However, Sedgwick, absolutely, did his homework. A clear and succinct, chapter-by-chapter, notes section gives sources that include works of historians Joseph Ellis, Gary Wills and Ron Chernow, as well as the papers of the two at war, Hamilton and Burr.

At the core of the book are two unanswerable questions about these two fascinating personalities, (neither of which is Who shot first?):

(1) What thing, exactly, triggered longtime antagonists, Burr and Hamilton, to tempt fate that particular morning?

(2) What caused two brilliant, accomplished, respected public men to lose their bearings, slide into decline, and, ultimately, destroy themselves?

Technically, it was Burr who destroyed Hamilton with a bullet at Weehawken (New Jersey), killing him before his 50th year in 1804. However, long before that July day, Hamilton’s actions could be characterized a self-destructive; letters show his paranoia, and rage had been on the increase for years. Hamilton’s prodigious powers and influence had ebbed. At the end, despite having lost his adored son Philip to a duel in the same spot,* Hamilton kept his appointment with the Vice President.

Aaron Burr appears to have triumphed, living 30 years more than his foe, to the ripe age of 80, but the devil, as they say, is in the details. Readers unfamiliar with Burr’s life after the duel are in for one crazy ride. Sedgwick’s account of Burr’s headlong rush down the road to perdition is hard to put down.

Burr fled from the authorities who wanted him for murder. He engaged in epic adventuring that included traitorous plotting against the infant United States in hopes of becoming emperor of sorts himself. Chased to Europe, he was at times without friends, without funds and trapped without a passport. He suffered illness and painful dental troubles. He lost his grandson and namesake at 10 years, and his 29-year-old daughter, Theodosia, in a shipwreck on her way to see him. (It is thought, Theodosia is the only person Aaron Burr ever truly loved.) As terrible a human being as Burr was, his terrible end left me feeling sorry for him.

This is a worthy entry for history lovers looking to revisit the duel, and learn more about the ill-fated men at the heart of our nation’s early efforts at government. It would general readers realize that divisiveness, nasty discourse and rancor in political discourse is nothing new, and may have even been worse during the founding fathers era.

I had minor quibbles with War of Two. Right off the bat, I don’t like the title. Once you learn the etymology of duel, –  from the Latin duellum, archaic and literary form of bellum (war), with the meaning ‘combat between two persons,’it makes sense, but a sexier title might attract more readers. Also, Sedgwick breaks the narrative into four parts, the first three presenting each subject’s life in alternating chapters. While it’s a logical structure, not all transitions are fluid, so the read, in places, felt disjointed.

Lastly, early in, Sedgwick conjures a metaphor I thought apt and evocative, – a cosmic spider spinning silken strands that wisp by delicate wisp – linking Hamilton to Burr. I was disappointed Sedgwick didn’t carry the thread through. It’s natural to envision the two gradually, inescapably bound with one another inside an cocoon, cut off from a more reasonable world. And Hamilton death didn’t free Burr, who dragged a corpse tethered to him, until, he himself became a dried-out husk.

    Notes | Sources | Resources

* Philip, firstborn of Alexander and Elizabeth (Schuyler) Hamilton, called out George I. Eakin, who had made disparaging remarks about his father. On November 24, 1801, the 20-year-old was killed by Eakin’s pistol shot.

* Definition of duel; http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/duel

* Hamilton by Ron Chernow (2004) is the definitive biography of Alexander Hamilton. It is Sedgwick’s go-to source for Hamilton in War of Two, as well as the inspiration for Hamilton the musical, after Lin-Manuel Miranda read it.

* Alexander Hamilton – Wikipedia; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Hamilton

* Hamilton (musical) – Wikipedia; en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamilton_(musical)

* Lin-Manuel Miranda – Wikipedia; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lin-Manuel_Miranda